Towards Cultivating Black Pepper Using Geospatial Technology for Growth Monitoring and Mapping: A Review for Small Scale Practice in Malaysia


  • Siti Zul Lailee Kamsan Department of Basic Science and Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Bintulu Campus.
  • Wan Nor Zanariah Zainol @ Abdullah Department of Basic Science and Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Bintulu Campus.
  • Rosnah Shamsudin Department of Process and Food Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang.



Amendment in black pepper cultivation is crucial to level up the productivity of this crop. Implementation of geospatial technology on black pepper cultivation which also classified as small scale agricultural activity is seen to enhance their production. In this paper, we use a comprehensive study on journal papers, conference proceedings, formal web sites and books as fundamental sources of information. Firstly, the study review on black pepper current situation in Malaysia and related producer countries. Secondly, it focused on geospatial technology especially on remote sensing and crop growth monitoring that have been implemented and well established. Lastly, limitation to implement this technology on black pepper cultivation in Malaysia situation was discussed. Therefore, it is predicted that geospatial technology will enhance black pepper productivity and implementation of this technology on small scale cultivation requires consolidation from various agencies since it requires high investment and foundation.

Author Biography

Wan Nor Zanariah Zainol @ Abdullah, Department of Basic Science and Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Bintulu Campus.

I, Wan Nor Zanariah bt. Zainol @ Abdullah was born at Kedah. My undergraduate study at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) in Bachelor of Science (Remote Sensing) in 2002. I completed my first degree in 2006 and enrolled for a master’s degree in 2007 while working as a tutor at Department of Biological and Agriculture Engineering at Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang Campus. I managed to complete my master’s degree in 2010. I got an opportunity to further my PhD degree at University of Southern Queensland (USQ) in Australia starting from 2012 till 2016. During my PhD study, I was attached to the Faculty of Engineering and Surveying. I graduated with a PhD in 2016 and appointed as a senior lecturer on 5th July 2016 at Department of Basic Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Sarawak Campus.

              Since 2008, I have been involved in teaching either as a tutor or lecturer of the following courses, namely Geographic Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS), Precision Agriculture, Engineering Survey, Engineering Workshop, Agriculture Machinery Management, as well as Basic Mathematic II. For research work, generally, my research has been focused in the area of GIS and remote sensing mainly for agricultural purposes. I had published my research findings in national and international journals. I also actively participated in national and international conferences in order to learn and share knowledge with other researchers and academia.


Abraham, A. (2018) ‘The Trend in Export, Import and Production performance of Black pepper in India’, International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 118(18 Special), pp. 4795–4800.

Aziemah, J. N. et al. (2017) ‘Peluang dan Potensi Tanaman Lada Hitam di Sabah : Persepsi Penerimaan Penduduk Daerah Tenom’, e-Academia Journal, 6(2), pp. 1–191.

Baruth, B. et al. (2008) ‘The use of Remote Sensing Within The MARS Crop Yield Monitoring System of The European Commission’, The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences.2, XXXVII. Available at:

Berhane, T. M. et al. (2018) ‘Decision-tree, rule-based, and random forest classification of high-resolution multispectral imagery for wetland mapping and inventory’, Remote Sensing, 10(4). doi: 10.3390/rs10040580.

Bermawie, N. et al. (2019) ‘Morphological characteristics, yield and quality of black pepper Ciinten variety in three agro ecological conditions’, International Conference on Food Science & Technology, 292(1). doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/292/1/012065.

Bonadies, S., Lefcourt, A. and Gadsden, S. A. (2016) ‘A Survey of unmanneed ground vehicle with application to agricultural and environmental sensing’, in Autonomous Air and Ground Sensing Systems for Agricultural Optimization and Phenotyping. SPIE. doi: 10.1117/12.2224248.

Boogard, H., Roller, J. A. te and Diepen, K. van (2007) CGMS Version 9.2 User Manual and technical documentation. Edited by B. Baruth, G. Genovese, and O. Leo. Italy: European Communities.

Carolita, I. et al. (2018) ‘Growth Profile Analysis of Oil Palm By Using Spot 6 the Case of North Sumatra’, International Journal of Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences (IJReSES), 12(1), p. 21. doi: 10.30536/j.ijreses.2015.v12.a2669.

Chang, A. et al. (2017) ‘Crop height monitoring with digital imagery from Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)’, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture2, 141, pp. 232–237. doi: 0168-1699.

Chao-yun, H. A. O. et al. (2012) ‘Modeling the Potential Geographic Distribution of Black Pepper ( Piper nigrum ) in Asia Using GIS Tools’, Journal of Integrative Agriculture. Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 11(4), pp. 593–599. doi: 10.1016/S2095-3119(12)60046-X.

Charyulu, K. R. C. et al. (2019) ‘Case Studies on the Utilization of Geospatial Technology for Sustainable Agriculture’, International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 8(03), pp. 112–120. doi: 10.20546/ijcmas.2019.803.016.

Chen, L. et al. (2019) ‘Water requirement for irrigation of complicated agricultural land by using classified airborne digital sensor images’, Journal of Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 47, pp. 1307–1314. Available at:

Chong, K. L. et al. (2017) ‘A review of remote sensing applications for oil palm studies’, Geo-Spatial Information Science. Taylor & Francis, 20(2), pp. 184–200. doi: 10.1080/10095020.2017.1337317.

Clevers, J. G. P. . et al. (1994) ‘A framework for monitoring crop growth by combining directional and spectral remote sensing information’, Remote Sensing of Environment, 50, pp. 161–170.

Defournya, P. et al. (2019) ‘Near real time agriculture monitoring at national scale at parcel resolution Perfrormance assessment of the sen2 agriculture automated system’, Remote Sensing of Environment2, pp. 551–568.

Diepen, K. Van and Wit, A. De (2014) The WOFOST model , its principles, implication, main parameters and examples of use, JRC European Commission. Available at: (Accessed: 11 November 2019).

Du, M. and Noguchi, N. (2017) ‘Monitoring of wheat growth status and mapping of wheat yield within field spatial variation using color images from UAV Camera system’, Remote Sensing, 9(289). doi: 10.3390/rs9030289.

Ehbrecht, M. et al. (2016) ‘Experimental Biodiversity Enrichment in Oil-Palm-Dominated Landscapes in Indonesia’, Frontiers in Plant Science, 07(October), pp. 1–15. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.01538.

FAO (2020) GIEWS - Global Information and Early Warning System, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nation. Available at:

Fardusi, M. J., Chianucci, F. and Barbati, A. (2017) ‘Concept to Practice of Geospatial-Information Tools to Assist Forest Management and Planning under Precision Forestry Framework: a review’, Annals of Silvicultural Research, 41(1), pp. 3–14. doi: 10.12899/asr-1354.

Fieuzal, R., Marais Sicre, C. and Baup, F. (2016) ‘Estimation of corn yield using multi-temporal optical and radar satellite data and artificial neural networks’, International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. Elsevier B.V., 57, pp. 14–23. doi: 10.1016/j.jag.2016.12.011.

Franch, B. et al. (2019) ‘Remote sensing based yield monitoring application to winter wheat in United States and Ukraine’, International Journal Applied Earth Observation Geoinformation, 76, pp. 112–127.

Fritz, S. et al. (2019) ‘A comparison of global agricultural monitoring systems and current gaps’, Agricultural Systems, 168(July 2018), pp. 258–272. doi: 10.1016/j.agsy.2018.05.010.

Funk, C. and Verdin, J. P. (2009) ‘Real - Time Decision Support Systems: The Femine Early Warning System Network’, Spatial Demography, pp. 295–320. doi:

Geospatial Media and Communication (2015) Geospatial Technology in agriculture Industry Trends & Prospects 2015. India.

Ghobadifar, F. et al. (2016) ‘Detection of BPH brown planthopper sheath blight in rice farming using multispectral remote sensing’, Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk, 7(1), pp. 237–247. Available at:

Grenzdörffer, G. J. (2014) ‘Crop height determination with UAS point clouds’, International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives, pp. 135–140. doi: 10.5194/isprsarchives-XL-1-135-2014.

Hazir, M. H. M. and Muda, T. M. T. (2018) ‘The viability of remote sensing for extracting rubber smallholding information: A case study in Malaysia’, Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science. National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences, (xxxx), pp. 1–13. doi: 10.1016/j.ejrs.2018.05.001.

Huang, Q. et al. (2011) ‘China crop growth monitoring system-methodology and operational activities overview’, International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS). IEEE, pp. 2961–2964. doi: 10.1109/IGARSS.2011.6049837.

Izzah, A. H. and Asrina, W. . W. (2019) ‘Black Pepper in Malaysia: An Overview and Future Prospects’, Agricultural Reviews, 40(04). doi: 10.18805/ag.r-129.

Izzah, A. H. and Asrina, W. Y. W. (2018) ‘Spatial Variability of NPK in Black Pepper Farm on Hilly Topography’, (April 2017).

Kandiannan, K. et al. (2002) ‘Allometric model for leaf area estimation in black pepper’, Journal of Agronomy & Crop Science, 188, pp. 138–140.

Kern, A. et al. (2018) ‘Statistical modelling of crop yield in central Europe using climate data and remote sensing vegetation indices’, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology.

Kho, P. E. and Shang, C. Y. (2016) ‘Novel Farming Innovation for High Production of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Planting Materials’, Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology B, 7(5), pp. 23–25. doi: 10.17265/2161-6264/2017.05.001.

Krishnamoorthy, B. and Parthasarathy, V. A. (2009) ‘Improvement of black pepper’, CAB Reviews Perspectives in Agriculture Veterinary Science Nutrition and Natural Resources, 4(85), pp. 1–12. doi: 10.1079/pavsnnr20094085.

Kumar, T. S. S. and Swarupa, P. U. (2017) ‘Cultivation Practices of Black Pepper in India – a Review Cultivation Practices of Black Pepper in India – a Review’, International Journal of Innovative Research in Management Studies, 2(5), pp. 21–27.

Kussul, N. et al. (2018) ‘Crop inventory at regional scale in Ukraine: developing in season and end of season crop maps with multi-temporal optical and SAR satellite imagery’, European Journal of Remote Sensing. Taylor & Francis, 51(1), pp. 627–636. doi: 10.1080/22797254.2018.1454265.

Li, H. et al. (2019) ‘Full year crop monitoring and separability assessment with fully polarimetric L-band UAVSAR: Acase study in Sacramento Valley California’, International Journal Applied Earth Observation Geoinformation, pp. 1–12. doi: .1037//0033-2909.I26.1.78.

Li, Z. and Chen, Z. (2011) ‘Remote Sensing Indicators for Crop Growth Monitoring at Different Scales’, in IGARSS. Republic of China: IEEE.

Malaysia Pepper Board (2018) MPB PenanamanLada.pdf, Panduan Pembajaan Lada Dan Kekurangan Nutrient. Available at:

Martinez, A. I. (2017) ‘Precision Agriculture for Iraq’s and Syria Post - Conflict Recovery’, GIS Resources.

Meng, J. H., Wu, B. F. and Li, Q. Z. (2006) ‘A global crop growth monitoring system based on remote sensing’, International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), (February), pp. 2277–2280. doi: 10.1109/IGARSS.2006.589.

Ministry of International Trade and Industry (2018) Industry4WRD: National Policy on Industry 4.0. Malaysia: Ministry of International Trade and Industry.

Nandibewoor, A., Saleem.B.Hebbal and Hegadid, R. (2015) ‘Remote monitoring of maize through satellite multispectral imagery’, in International Conference on Advanced Computing Technologies and Application 2015. India: Procedia Computer Science, pp. 344–353.

Norasma, Y. N. et al. (2018) ‘Rice crop monitoring using multirotor UAV and RGB digital camera at early stage of growth’, in IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci, p. 12095. doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/169/1/012095.

Nurmiaty et al. (2019) ‘Developing agricultural land geospatial information in supporting regional food resilience.pdf’, in The International Conference on Geoscience. IOP Publishing.

Orynbaikyzy, A., Gessner, U. and Conrad, C. (2019) ‘Crop type classification using a combination of optical and radar remote sensing data a review’, International Journal of Remote Sensing. Available at:

Paduit, N. et al. (2018) ‘Nutrient Uptake and Distribution in Black Pepper’, Better Crops with Plant Food, 102(4), pp. 24–27. doi: 10.24047/bc102424.

Panda, S. S., Ames, D. P. and Panigrahi, S. (2010) ‘Application of vegetation indices for agricultural crop yield prediction using neural network techniques’, Remote Sensing, 2(3), pp. 673–696. doi: 10.3390/rs2030673.

Prim, A. (2017) An Increasing Role of Geospatial Technologies in Agriculture Management, GIS Resources. Uttar Pradesh, India: Spatial Media and Services Enterprises. Available at:

Qing, H. et al. (2011) ‘China CGMS methodology and operational activities overview’, in IGARSS. China: IEEE.

Raeva, P. L., Šedina, J. and Dlesk, A. (2019) ‘Monitoring of crop fields using multispectral and thermal imagery from UAV’, European Journal of Remote Sensing. Taylor & Francis, 52(sup1), pp. 192–201. doi: 10.1080/22797254.2018.1527661.

Ravindran, P. N. and Kallupurackal, J. A. (2012) Black pepper. Second Edi, Handbook of Herbs and Spices: Second Edition. Second Edi. Woodhead Publishing Limited. doi: 10.1533/9780857095671.86.

Rembold, F. et al. (2017) ‘ASAP - Anomaly hot Spots of Agriculture Production, a new early warning decision support system developed by the Joint Research Centre’, in 2017 9th International Workshop on the Analysis of Multitemporal Remote Sensing Images. IEEE. doi: 10.1109/Multi-Temp.2017.8035205.

Rosli, A., Radam, A. and Rahim, K. A. (2013) ‘Technology Adoption in Pepper Farming: a Case Study in Sarawak, Malaysia’, the Internacional Journal of Social Sciences, 1, pp. 19–22. Available at: 11th Volume/anita2.pdf.

Rowshon, M. K. and Amin, M. S. . (2010) ‘GIS Based irrigation water management for precision farming of rice’, International Journal of agriculture and biological engineering, 3(3), pp. 27–35. doi: 10.3965/j.issn.1934-6344.2010.01.027-035.

Rudiyanto et al. (2019) ‘Automated Near-Real-Time Mapping and Monitoring of Rice Extent, Cropping Patterns, and Growth Stages in Southeast Asia Using Sentinel-1 Time Series on a Google Earth Engine Platform’, Remote Sensing, 11(14), p. 1666. doi: 10.3390/rs11141666.

Sanny, L., Polla, J. R. and Fatmawati, I. (2018) ‘The Analysis of Export Potency for Indonesian Pepper’, Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 26, pp. 237–246.

Shafinah, K. et al. (2013) ‘Kebolehcapaian nasihat bagi pengurusan penyakit tanaman oleh pekebun kecil lada hitam , Sarawak : Tinjauan awal Critical extension services and the plight of Sarawak ’ s black pepper farmers : A preliminary survey’, Malaysian journal of society and space, 9(2), pp. 17–26.

Sharifi, M. A. (2000) ‘Crop inventory and production forecasting using remote sensing and agrometeorological models: the case of major agricultural commodities in Hamadan province, Iran’, International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, XXXIII, pp. 1364–1372.

Sivaraman, K. et al. (1999) ‘Agronomy of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) - a review’, Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops, 8(1), pp. 1–18.

Song, Q. et al. (2017) ‘In-season crop mapping with GF-1/WFV data by combining object-based image analysis and random forest’, Remote Sensing, 9(11). doi: 10.3390/rs9111184.

Sousa, D. and Small, C. (2019) ‘Mapping and Monitoring rice agriculture with multisensor temporal mixture models’. Columbia: MDPI.

Srinivasan, V., Srambikkal, H. and Dinesh, R. (2007) ‘Nutrient Management in Black pepper’, (January).

Su, A. S. M. et al. (2017) ‘Teknologi Aplikasi Dron Untuk Pertanian’, Persidangan Kebangsaan Pemindahan Teknologi 2017 (CONFERTECH), (December), pp. 44–48.

Sulok, K. M. T. et al. (2018) ‘Introducing Natural Farming in Black Pepper ( Piper nigrum L.) Cultivation’, International Journal of Agronomy, 2018, pp. 1–6. doi: 10.1155/2018/9312537.

Tan, K. P., Kanniah, K. D. and Cracknell, A. P. (2012) ‘A review of remote sensing based productivity models and their suitability for studying oil palm productivity in tropical regions’, Progress in Physical Geography, 36(5), pp. 655–679. doi: 10.1177/0309133312452187.

Wu, B. et al. (2015) ‘Global Crop Monitoring: A Satellite Based Hierarchical Approach’, Remote Sensing, 7(4). doi: 10.3390/rs70403907.

Xue, J. and Su, B. (2017) ‘Significant Remote Sensing Vegetation Indices: A Review of Developments and Applications’, Journal of Sensors, 2017, pp. 1–17. doi: 10.1155/2017/1353691.

Yap, C. A. (2012a) ‘Determination of Nutrient Uptake Characteristic of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.)’, Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology B, 2, pp. 1091–1099. doi: ISSN 1939-1250.

Yap, C. A. (2012b) ‘Impact of Different Fertilization Methods on the Soil , Yield and Growth Performance of Black Pepper (Piper Nigrum L.)’, Malaysian journal of society and spacesian Journal of Soil Science, 16, pp. 71–87. doi: 1394-7990.

Yap, C. A. (2016) ‘Efficacy of Organic Products as Black Pepper Foliar Fertilizer’, International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology, 1(3), pp. 586–592. doi: 10.22161/ijeab/1.3.42.

Yap, C. A. and Jarroop, Z. (2018) ‘Residue levels and dissipation behaviors of chlorpyrifos in black pepper berries and soil’, Food Research, 2(December), pp. 587–593. doi: Abstract.

Yuzugullu, O. et al. (2017) ‘Determining Rice Growth Stage with xband SAR a m etamodel based inversion’, Remote Sensing of Environment, 9. doi: 10.3390/rs9050460.

Zainol, W. N. Z. A. et al. (2019) ‘Spectral discrimination of bulloak (Allocasuarina leuhmannii) and associated woodland for habitat mapping of the endangered bulloak jewel butterfly (Hypochrysops piceata) in southern Queensland.pdf’, Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 8.

Zambon, I. et al. (2019) ‘Revolution 4.0: Industry vs. Agriculture in a Future Development for SMEs’, Processes, 7(1), p. 36. doi: 10.3390/pr7010036.






Abstract viewed = 1315 times
PDF downloaded = 718 times