Rice Bran of Different Rice Varieties in Malaysia: Analysis of Proximate Compositions, Antioxidative Properties and Fatty Acid Profile for Data Compilation

Authors

  • Nurul Najihah Ilias Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang
  • Norazatul Hanim Mohd Rozalli Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • Nguyen Hoang Thuy Vy Nong Lam University
  • Hui Yi Eng

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.36877/aafrj.a0000164

Abstract

The research aims to investigate the difference in rice bran compositions of three major paddy varieties in Malaysia, which are MR 220 CL2, MR 219 and MR 297. The proximate compositions, antioxidative properties and fatty acid profile of the rice bran were compared. Stabilization of rice bran of all varieties was conducted in prior to the extraction of rice bran oil (RBO) by using the Soxhlet extraction. Fatty acid compositions consisted in RBO of each variety were analysed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results on proximate compositions showed that MR 297 was the highest in the content of moisture (3.90 ± 0.29 %), fat (22.52 ± 0.09 %), protein (12.70 ± 0.53 %) and crude fiber (3.65 ± 0.26 %). MR 297 variety also exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, which indicated by the highest amount of total phenolic content (TPC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) compared to the other two varieties. Three components of fatty acids: palmitic acid; oleic acid; linoleic acid have made up around 90% of the total fatty acids of the RBO for all varieties. The RBO also contains ideal fatty acid compositions with more unsaturated compared to saturated fatty acid, which makes it suitable to be used as a healthy edible oil. Results of this study can provide significant nutritional information for future investigations on the conversion of this agro-waste into valuable products for animals and human benefits.

Author Biography

Nurul Najihah Ilias, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang

Food Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

References

Abdul Khalil, H.P.S., Md. Sohrab Hossain, Nur Amiranajwa, A.S., et al. (2016). Production and characterization of the defatted oil palm shell nanoparticles. Sains Malaysiana, 45(5), 833–839.

AOAC. (2012). Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Washington, D.C.

Arab, F., Alemzadeh, I. & Maghsoudi, V. (2011). Determination of antioxidant component and activity of rice bran extract. Scientia Iranica, 18(6), 1402–1406.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scient.2011.09.014

Awika, J. M., Rooney, L. W., Wu, X., et al. (2003). Screening methods to measure antioxidant activity of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and sorghum products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(23), 6657–6662. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf034790i

Azrina, A., Maznah, I. & Azizah, A. H. (2008). Extraction and determination of oryzanol in rice bran of mixed herbarium UKMB ; AZ 6807 : MR 185, AZ 6808 : MR 211 , AZ6809 : MR 29. ASEAN Food Journal, 15(1), 89–96.

Bakota, E. L., Winkler-Moser, J. K. & Liu, S. X. (2014). Evaluation of a rice bran oil-derived spread as a functional ingredient. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 116(5), 521–531. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201300259

Bhosale, S., & Vijayalakshmi, D. (2015). Processing and nutritional composition of rice bran. Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science, 3(1), 74–80. https://doi.org/10.12944/CRNFSJ.3.1.08

Chakraborty, M., & Budhwar, S. (2018). Nutritional and therapeutic value of rice bran. International Journal of Green and Herbal Chemistry, 7(3). https://doi.org/10.24214/ijghc/gc/7/3/45161

Chatha, S. A. S., Anwar, F., Manzoor, M., et al. (2006). Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of rice bran extracts using different antioxidant assays. Grasas y Aceites, 57(3), 328–335. https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.2006.v57.i3.56

Daud, N. S. M., Zaidel, D. N. A., Lai, K. S., et al. (2018). Crude oil yield and properties of rice bran oil from different varieties as affected by extraction conditions using soxhterm method. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 43(11), 6237–6244. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13369-018-3438-1

Du, J., Yang, T., Ceng, Y.W., et al. (2013). Determination of flavonoid in rice grain by HPLC. J Plant Genet Resour., 13(5), 896-900.

Durazzo, A., Casale, G., Melini, V., et al. (2015). Evaluation of antioxidant properties in cereals: Study of some traditional italian wheats. Foods, 4, 391–399. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4030391

FAO, WHO (1993). Fats and Oils in human nutrition. Report of a joint expert consultation organised by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the world Health Organization Rome, 19-26 October. 10:19-26. Fatty acids, metal composition and physico-chemical parameters of Igbemo Ekiti rice bran oil. Retrieved on 7th february 2020 from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235735579_Fatty_acids_metal_composition_and_physico-chemical_parameters_of_Igbemo_Ekiti_rice_bran_oil.

Ferreira-Dias, S., Valente, D. G. & Abreu, J. M. F. (2003). Comparison between ethanol and hexane for oil extraction from Quercus suber L. fruits. Grasas y Aceites, 54(4), 378–383. https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.2003.v54.i4.225

Ghosh, M. (2007). Review on recent trends in rice bran oil processing. JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 84, 315–324. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-007-1047-3

Gopala Krishna, A. G., Hemakumar, K. H. & Khatoon, S. (2006). Study on the composition of rice bran oil and its higher free fatty acids value. JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 83(2), 117–120. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-006-1183-1

Hanafi, M. M., Hartinie, A., Shukor, J., et al. (2009). Upland rice varieties in Malaysia: Agronomic and soil physico-chemical characteristics. Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci, 32(2), 225–246. Retrieved from http://agrolink.

Hashmi, M. I., & Tianlin, J. S. (2016). Minerals contents of some indigenous rice varieties of Sabah Malaysia. International Journal of Agriculture, 2, 31-34.

Hayes, K. C. (2002). Dietary fat and heart health: in search of the ideal fat. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 11(Suppl), 394–400. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-6047.11.s.7.13.x

Heinonen, I. M., Lehtonen, P. J. & Hopia, A. I. (1998). Antioxidant activity of berry and fruit wines and liquors. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46(1), 25–31. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf970489o

Hosnan, A. (2019). Anim Agro Technology: Varieti Padi Popular Di Malaysia. Retrieved on 7th February 2020 from http://animhosnan.blogspot.com/2019/04/varieti-padi-popular-dimalaysia.html.

Hu, G., Huang, S., Cao, S., et al. (2009). Effect of enrichment with hemicellulose from rice bran on chemical and functional properties of bread. Food Chemistry, 115(3), 839–842. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.12.092

Hu, G., & Yu, W. (2015). Effect of hemicellulose from rice bran on low fat meatballs chemical and functional properties. Food Chemistry, 186, 239–243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.07.063

Hussain, Z., Mokhtar, A., Amzah, B., Hashim, M., et al. (2012). Enam varieti padi popular MARDI. Buletin Teknologi MARDI, 1, 1-10. Retrieved on 2nd February 2020 from http://ebuletin.mardi.gov.my/index.php/arkib/64-2012/bil-1-2012/251-2012-01-02.

Ichihara, K. & Fukubayashi, Y. (2010). Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for gas-liquid chromatography. Journal of Lipid Research, 51(3), 635–640. https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.D001065

Iqbal, S., Bhanger, M. I., & Anwar, F. (2005). Antioxidant properties and components of some commercially available varieties of rice bran in Pakistan. Food Chemistry, 93(2), 265–272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.09.024

Issara, U. & Rawdkuen, S. (2018). Instant organic rice bran milk: A nutritional quality aspect. International Food Research Journal, 25(4), 1600-1605.

Kumari, N., Khetarpaul Vinita, N. & Rani, P. (2018). Nutrient composition of full fat and defatted rice bran. Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research, 37(1), 77–80. https://doi.org/10.18805/ajdfr.DR-1277

Lai, O.-M., Jacoby, J. J., Leong, W.-F., et al. (2019). Chapter 2 - Nutritional studies of rice bran oil. In: L.-Z. Cheong, X. Xu (Eds.), Rice Bran and Rice Bran Oil, AOCS Press (2019), pp. 19-54. 10.1016/B978-0-12-812828-2.00002-0

Law, M. (2000). Dietary fat and adult diseases and the implications for childhood nutrition: An epidemiologic approach. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72(5), 1291-1296. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/72.5.1291s

Luqman, S., Kumar, R., Kaushik, S., et al. (2009). Antioxidant potential of the root of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash. Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics, 46(1), 122–125. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19374265

Malekian, F., Rao, R. M., Prinyawiwatkul, W., et al. (2000). Lipase and lipoxygenase activity, functionality, and nutrient losses in rice bran during storage (pp. 1–68). Bulletin No. 870. Baton Rouge: LSU Agricultural Center, Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station.

Mas’ud, F., Mahendradatta, M., Laga, A. & Zainal, Z. (2017). Component, fatty acid and mineral composition of rice bran oil extracted by multistage with hexane and ethanol. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 6(11). Retrieved from www.ijstr.org

May, C. Y. & Nesaretnam, K. (2014). Research advancements in palm oil nutrition. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 116(10), 1301–1315. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201400076

Mercer, D. G. (2008). Chapter 4 - Solar drying in developing countries: Possibilities and pitfalls. In: Robertson, G.L. & Lupien, J.R. (Eds), Using Food Science and Technology to Improve Nutrition and Promote National Development, International Union of Food Science & Technology (2008), 1-11.

Ministry of Agriculture (2018). Statistik Tanaman (Sub-sektor Tanaman Makanan). Retrieved on 2nd February 2020 from http://www.doa.gov.my/index/resources/aktiviti_sumber/sumber_awam/maklumat_pertanian/perangkaan_tanaman/booklet_statistik_tanaman_2018.pdf.

Muntana, N. & Prasong, S. (2010). Study on total phenolic contents and their antioxidant activities of Thai white, red and black rice bran extracts. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 13(4), 170–174. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2010.170.174

Narayan, A. V., Barhate, R. S. & Raghavarao, K. S. M. S. (2006). Extraction and purification of oryzanol from rice bran oil and rice bran oil soapstock. JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 83, 663–670. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-006-5021-2

Nori, H., Sani, S.A. & Tuen, A. A. (2009). Chemical and physical properties of Sarawak (East Malaysia) rice straws. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 21 (22). Retrieved on 2nd February 2020, from http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd21/8/nori21122.htm

Omar, S. C., Shaharudin, A. & Tumin, S. A. (2019). The Status of the Paddy and Rice Industry in Malaysia. Retrieved on 2nd February 2020 from http://www.krinstitute.org/assets/contentMS/img/template/editor/20190409_RiceReport_Full%20Report_Final.pdf

Orsavova, J., Misurcova, L., Vavra Ambrozova, J., et al. (2015). Fatty acids composition of vegetable oils and its contribution to dietary energy intake and dependence of cardiovascular mortality on dietary intake of fatty acids. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 16(6), 12871–12890. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160612871

Oviasogie, P. O., Okoro, D. 2013 & Ndiokwere, C. L. (2009). Determination of total phenolic amount of some edible fruits and vegetables. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8(12), 2819–2820. Retrieved from http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB

Pal, Y. P. & Pratap, A. P. (2017). Rice bran oil: A versatile source for edible and industrial applications. J. Oleo Sci, 66(6), 551–556. https://doi.org/10.5650/jos.ess17061

Prior, R. L., Wu, X. & Schaich, K. (2005). Standardized methods for the determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolics in foods and dietary supplements. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 4290–4302. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0502698

Rosniyana, A., Hashifah, M. A., & Norin, S. A. S. (2007). The physico-chemical properties and nutritional composition of rice bran produced at different milling degrees of rice. J. Trop. Agric. and Fd. Sc., 35(1), 99–105.

Rosniyana, A., Hashifah, M. A., & Norin, S. A. S. (2009). Nutritional content and storage stability of stabilised rice bran – MR 220 . J. Trop. Agric. and Fd. Sc., 37(2), 163–170.

Ruslan, R., Aznan, A. A., Azizan, F. A.,et al. (2018). Extraction of morphological features of Malaysian rice seed varieties using flatbed scanner. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, 8(1), 93–98. https://doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.8.1.2752

Saad Smuda, S., Sobhy, Mohsen, M., et al. (2018). Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of some cereal milling by-products. J Food Sci Technol., 55(3), 1134–1142. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-017-3029-2

Saccotelli, M. A., Conte, A., Burrafato, K. R., et al. (2017). Optimization of durum wheat bread enriched with bran. Food Science and Nutrition, 5(3), 689–695. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.448

Saikia, D. & Deka S C. (2011). Cereals: from staple food to nutraceuticals. International Food Research Journal, 18, 21-30.

Salehi, E.A, & Sardarodiyan, M. (2016). Bioactive phytochemicals in rice bran : Processing and functional properties. biochemistry. An Indian Journal, 10(3), 1–10.

Sam Lum, M. (2017). Physicochemical characteristics of different rice varieties found in Sabah, Malaysia. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(2), 68 - 754. Retrieved from http://transectscience.org/

Satter, M. A., Ara, H., Jabin, S. A., et al. (2014). Nutritional Composition and Stabilization of Local Variety Rice Bran BRRI-28. International Journal of Science and Technology, 3(5), 306–313.

Saunder, R.M. (1990). The properties of rice bran as a foodstuff. Cereal Food World, 35, 632–636

Sereewatthanawut, I., Prapintip, S., Watchiraruji, K., et al. (2008). Extraction of protein and amino acids from deoiled rice bran by subcritical water hydrolysis. Bioresource Technology, 99(3), 555–561. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2006.12.030

Sharma A.R. (2002). Edible rice bran oil-consumer awareness programme. Rice Bran Oil Promotion Committee. Solvent Extractors Association of India.

Singleton, V. L. & Rossi, J. A. (1965). Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16(3), 144-158.

Tawaha, K., Alali, F. Q., Gharaibeh, M., et al. (2007). Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of selected Jordanian plant species. Food Chemistry, 104(4), 1372–1378.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.01.064

Thirunavukkarasu, P., Ramanathan, T., Shanmugapriya, R., et al. (2011). Antioxidant and free radical scavenging effect of Acanthus ilicifolius. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, 6(3), 218–222. https://doi.org/10.3923/rjasci.2011.218.222

Thomas, R., Bhat, R., & Kuang, Y. T. (2015). Composition of amino acids, fatty acids, minerals and dietary fiber in some of the local and import rice varieties of Malaysia. International Food Research Journal, 22(3), 1148-1155.

Verma, D. K., & Srivastav, P. P. (2017). Proximate composition, mineral content and fatty acids analyses of aromatic and non-aromatic Indian rice. Rice Science, 24(1), 21–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsci.2016.05.005

Downloads

Published

2020-12-30

Issue

Section

ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE