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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  • If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

Author Guidelines

Manuscript prior to submission shall be accordance with the instructions and format specified below:

  • You are advised to download the document titled 'Submission Template’ and use it as a template for your manuscript
  • Journal of Workforce Education and Research accept manuscripts written in either American or British English with clear and comprehensive English. Non-English words usage must be kept to a minimum and the font must be italicized (except for e.g. and i.e.).
  • Authors from the country that English is not the first language are advised to go through professional language and content check prior to final submission.
  • All articles that are submitted should attach a cover letter as a separate file.


Cover Letter

The contents of the cover letter should consist of a brief explanation of what was previously known, the conceptual advancement with the findings and its significance to a broad readership. Authors shall provide all the information about the novelty and importance of your findings including the similarity index report by iThenticate/TurnitIn of 30% or less.. The cover letter also serves as evidence that the author approved the submission of the article to Journal of Workforce Education and Research and has not submitted this article elsewhere.

A well-written cover letter would provide an opportunity to convince journal editors to consider the article for publication. The author’s cover letters will only be read by the editors and will be kept strictly confidential. It will not be shared with the reviewers.

The cover letter also should include the completed declarations section. Please find below for the completed declarations section. Please choose one of the styles in each declaration section.

Conflict of interests:

  • HF received a grant from YYY. HS is an employee of XXX and collaboration with YYY.
  • The author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest

 Informed consent [OPTIONAL]:

  • [Written]/[Verbal] informed consent was obtained from [all subjects]/[legally authorized representatives] prior to the study.
  • Informed consent was not obtained for the present study because of –‘REASON’
  • Not applicable

Ethical approval [OPTIONAL]: 

  • Ethical approval for this study was obtained from – NAME OF ETHICS COMMITTEE OR INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD (APPROVAL NUMBER/ID)
  • Ethical approval for this study was waived by – NAME OF ETHICS COMMITTEE OR INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD because ‘REASON FOR WAIVER’.
  • Ethical approval was not obtained for the present study because of –‘REASON’.
  • Not applicable

Trial registration [OPTIONAL]: 

  • Name of trial registry: Trial registration number
  • This randomized clinical trial was not registered because –‘REASON’
  • Not Applicable


BF and NP researched literature and conceived the study. MS was involved in protocol development, gaining ethical approval, patient recruitment and data analysis. BF wrote the first draft of the manuscript. All authors reviewed and edited the manuscript and approved the final version of the manuscript




Authors should avoid the usage of excessive uncommon jargons that may not be understood by the target audience. Avoid titles that are too long and ensure that it is less than 50 words. Remember to spell out any acronyms first before using it throughout your article as this may help the readers who are not familiar with the meanings of the words. Also avoid irony, puns or humour in the title as it may not be understood by non-native speaking readers and it also tends to be more culture-specific, hence not being suitable for a broad audience.

List of Authors

Authors’ names should be spelled out fully instead of only listing their initials with their respective affiliations included in the footnotes. It must be ensured that the authors of a particular manuscript are listed based on the extent of their contribution and the major contributor should be listed first. Corresponding authors (maximum 2) must be identified with an asterisk. Affiliations should contain the following core information: department, institution, city, state, postal code, and country. Only include the email of one corresponding author for contact purposes in the manuscript. It is compulsory that all authors have viewed and approved the final version of the manuscript before submitting it via the system.


Authors should include an abstract which is a concise summary of a research paper that is fully self-contained and makes sense by itself. It should be informative for the readers and include the research purpose and the results achieved that are significant. Please note that the abstract should be the range of 200-250 words, indented and single spaced. Ideally, an abstract should be the last thing that the author writes after completing his manuscript. Authors should also include 5-8 keywords after the abstract and avoid using the words that have already been used in the title of the manuscript.

Section Headings

Authors must ensure that all section headings, subheadings and sub-subheadings are differentiated by font size. The bold font must be used for the major headings and subheadings, and non-bold font must be used for the sub-subheadings in parenthesis.


Headings: XXXXX
Subheadings: XXXXX
Sub-sub headings: xxxxx


The introduction of the paper should start with an explanation of why a particular research is being conducted and end with a statement/conclusion of the selected research approach. Authors must ensure that an non-technical reader is able to understand the introduction, including the technical goals and objectives, any technical issues faced and its application in the real world. It would be beneficial for the readers if the authors provided a clear, one sentence purpose statement of the research. It would be advisable to keep the length of the introduction about 1/2 page (1-2 paragraphs).

Materials and Methods

In this section, authors are required to provide a detailed account of the procedure that was followed while conducting the research described in the report. This will help the readers to obtain a clear understanding of the research and also allow them to replicate the study in the future. Authors should ensure that every method used is described and include citations for the procedures that have been described previously. Avoid any kind of discussion in this section regarding the methods or results of any kind.


Ethics information, including IACUC permit numbers and/or IRB name, if applicable. This information should be included in a subheading labeled "Ethics Statement" in the "Methods" section of your manuscript file, in as much detail as possible.


This section can be divided into subheadings. This section focuses on the results of the experiments performed.


In this section, authors should state their interpretations and explain the implications of their results and make suggestions for future research. The discussion should be kept as short as possible while clearly and fully stating, supporting, explaining, and defending the author’s answers and discussing other important and directly relevant issues. Authors should avoid discussing side issues as it may obscure the message.


Authors should note that the conclusion is extremely important as it provides a closure for their paper. An effective conclusion would leave the reader feeling satisfied that the concepts have been fully explained. The conclusion should start with a clear statement of principal findings that also has to be concise. It would help to set the paper in the context of previous work as this will show the readers how significant or worthy your research is. Please restrain from rewriting the abstract and recommendations for further research can be included in this section.


It is the authors’ responsibility to declare all financial and non-financial support that may be considered as a source of competing interest in relation to their submitted manuscript in this section. Any grants, royalties, consulting fees are considered as financial supports and must be declared. Other forms of non-financial support that must also be declared are externally-supplied equipment/biological sources, writing assistance, administrative support, contributions from non-authors etc.


Any technical details that are necessary to include, but that interrupts the flow of the article, can be attached in the appendix section. Any appendices should be included at the end of the main text of the paper, after the acknowledgements section (if any) but before the reference list. For supplementary figures, authors are advised to include it in the ‘Supplementary figures’ section.


The text of the manuscript should be in Microsoft Word or Latex. The length of the manuscript cannot be more than 50000 characters (inclusive of spaces) or approximately 7000 words.


Authors should include all figures into the manuscript and submit it as 1 file in the OJS system. Reference to the “” is strongly encouraged. Figures include photographs, scanned images, graphs, charts and schematic diagrams. Figures submitted should avoid unnecessary decorative effects (e.g. 3D graphs) as well as be minimally processed (e.g. changes in brightness and contrast applied uniformly for the entire figure). It should also be set against a white background.

Please remember to label all figures (e.g. axis etc.) and add in captions (below the figure) as required. These captions should be numbered (e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.) in boldface. All figures must have a brief title (also known as caption) that describes the entire figure without citing specific panels, followed by a legend defined as a description of each panel. Please identify each panel with uppercase letters in parenthesis (e.g. A, B, C, etc.)

The preferred file formats for any separately submitted figure(s) are TIFF or JPEG. All figures should be legible in print form and of optimal resolution. Optimal resolutions preferred are 300 dots per inch for RGB colored, 600 dots per inch for grey-scale and 1200 dots per inch for line art. Although there are no file size limitations imposed, authors are highly encouraged to compress their figures to an ideal size without unduly affecting legibility and resolution of figures. This will also speed up the process of uploading the submission system if necessary.

The Editor-in-Chief and Publisher reserve the right to request from author(s) the high-resolution files and unprocessed data and metadata files should the need arise at any point after manuscript submission for reasons such as production, evaluation or other purposes. The file name should allow for ease in identifying the associated manuscript submitted.

Tables, lists and equations

Tables, lists and equations must be submitted together with the manuscript. Likewise, lists and equations should be properly aligned and its meaning clear to readers. Tables created using Microsoft Word table function are preferred. Place each table in your manuscript file right after the paragraph in which it is first cited.

Do not submit your tables in separate files. The tables should include a concise but sufficiently explanatory title at the top. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Leave some extra space between the columns instead. All tables should be based on three horizontal lines to separate the caption, header and body. A few additional horizontal lines MAY be included as needed (example below). Any explanations essential to the understanding of the table should be given in footnotes at the bottom of the table. SI units should be used.

Supplementary information

This section is optional and contains all materials and figures that have been excluded from the entire manuscript. This information is relevant to the manuscript but remains non-essential to readers’ understanding of the manuscript’s main content. All supplementary information should be submitted as a separate file in Step 4 during submission. Please ensure the names of such files contain ‘suppl. info’.

In-text citations

Reference citations in the text should be clearly stated in brackets. Some examples:

  • Negotiation research spans many disciplines(John, 2015; Katrina, 2017).
  • This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman (2012).
  • This effect has been widely studied (Abraham, 2005; Chaudhary, 2008; Rossman, 2010).

Personal communications and unpublished works can only be used in the main text of the submission and are not to be placed in the Reference section. Authors are advised to limit such usage to the minimum. They should also be easily identifiable by stating the authors and year of such unpublished works or personal communications and the word ‘Unpublished’ in parenthesis, E.g. (Smith J, 2000, Unpublished).


The references section is compulsory and should be placed at the end of all manuscripts. The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should be excluded from this section.

The journal follows the APA style of references. For references in the reference list, if the referred article has two or three authors, the last author's name is preceded by an ampersand (&). If the referred article has more than three authors, list only the first three authors and abbreviates the remaining authors to italicized ‘et al.’ (meaning: “and others”). Authors referenced are listed with their surname followed by their initials (e.g. Smith J). All references should be sequenced according to the alphabet. References should follow the following pattern:

  1. Alred, G. J., Brusaw, C. T., & Oliu, W. E. (2009). The business writer’s handbook. New York, NY: St Martin's Press.
  2. Best, A. (2004). International history of the twentieth century. Retrieved from
  3. Easton, B. (2008). Does poverty affect health? In K. Dew & A. Matheson (Eds.), Understanding health inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand (pp. 97–106). Dunedin, New Zealand: Otago University Press.
  4. Flesch, R. (n.d.). How to write plain English. Retrieved on April 12, 2009, from /writing/flesch.shtml
  5. Li, S., & Seale, C. (2007). Learning to do qualitative data analysis: An observational study of doctoral work. Qualitative Health Research, 17, 1442–1452.  


Original Research Article should contain all reports of original research in Workforce Education and Research. This main mode of scientific communication should consist of principal research governing major contributions for many different fields and different types of studies. The report includes a full introduction, significant findings, latest methodologies, relevant statistical studies (if related), results and proper evidence of conclusions


Review article describes as of the latest findings, significant new development and progress, a compilation of published evidence of analysis at the particular subject area of research under this Journal's scope.


Editorial presents the opinion of an article or specific topic related to Workforce Education and Research. It also includes announcements, highlighting recent changes in accordance to the journal.

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