Utilization Review of Antihypertensive Agents at an Outpatient Pharmacy Setting of a Private Hospital, Selangor, Malaysia


  • Elammathi Ravinthiran
  • Ching Siang Tan
  • Shashidharan Menon
  • H. Jaasminerjiit Kaur
  • Anandarajagopal Kalusalingam
  • Abdullah Khan
  • Mohamad Mansor Manan
  • Khang Wen Goh
  • Mei Jun Loy
  • Long Chiau Ming




Introduction: Drug utilization review of antihypertensive agents is regularly conducted to monitor the prescribing trends.
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to describe the drug utilization pattern of antihypertensive agents in the outpatient setting of a private hospital and to determine the defined daily dose (DDD) used by the private hospital in comparison to WHO DDD.
Method: This is a retrospective study using pharmacy dispensing record. Inclusion criteria were prescriptions issued in 2017, patients more than 18 years old. The DDD was calculated for each anti-hypertensive drug prescribed which was then compared with WHO DDD. Medicine prices were also analysed.
Results: From the total outpatient prescriptions in 2017, 200 prescriptions were chosen randomly using SPSS software. Based on the prescriptions analysed, the mean number of drugs prescribed per prescription was 3.89 (SD: 2.37). Beta blockers were the most prescribed group of anti-hypertensives (37%). Bisoprolol 5mg (9%) and furosemide 40mg (8.7%) were those drugs given to the most patients. Out of 330 drugs prescribed, 76% of them were non-fixed dose combination formula-tions. Of note, DDD of the 14% and 39% of the anti-hypertensive drugs analysed complied with and of doubled of the WHO DDD, respectively. Out of 330 anti-hypertensive drug products prescribed, 76% of them were non-FDC drugs.
Conclusion: Beta blockers are still commonly prescribed antihypertensive agents. Compared with similar studies from the last five years, prescribing of newer anti-hypertensive drugs is increased, as evidenced by certain FDC products doubled the DDD value recommended by WHO.






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