Coliform contamination on faucet surface of water vending machines in Klang Valley


  • Yi-Mian Ang
  • Hong-Wai Tham



In Malaysia, water vending machine serves as an alternative to drinking water supply. However, the quality of
drinking water obtained from water vending machines may vary due to microorganism contamination which caused by
inadequate hygienic practices and routine maintenance of the machines. In this study, 100 water vending machines were
randomly selected from 10 districts of Klang Valley. Sterile cotton swabs were used to collect swab samples from all selected
subjects, with swab samples collected on the outer surface of water faucets. Samples were sent to laboratory for culture
analyses using Nutrient agars (Oxoid) and HiCromeTM Coliform agars (HiMedia Laboratories). The results showed that none
of the water vending machine was contaminated by faecal coliform, however, with close to 80% of the subjects were found
contaminated by total coliform (eg. Klebsiella, Enterobacter or Citrobacter species). Although the presence of total coliform
may not be deleterious to the health of end users, our findings highlights the need for authorities and water vending service
providers to set an effective sanitation procedure in maintaining the hygienic level of water vending machines.






Original Research Articles